Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Drug trafficking essayEssay Writing Service Drug trafficking essay Drug trafficking essayDrug trafficking is one of the most serious problems for most countries all over the world. Unfortunately, this type of business is rather profitable, if not to consider that it is constantly related to murders, kidnapping, prostitution and other crimes. Certainly drug trafficking contributes to better distribution of drugs, thus involving more and more people, making them addicted. Taking into consideration all the possible dangers, drugs are able to bring to any society, most countries are working constantly in order to prevent use and distribution of drugs which are not legal. The rage of responsibility varies in different countries, from fines and several years in prison to death punishment in China for example. Generally, Ã¢â¬Å"drug traffickingÃ¢â¬ means production, distribution and sale of illegal drugs. (Syal, 2009, p. 2). In this paper we are going to stop at some historical information, related to drugs and drug trafficking, the effects drug traffic king has upon people and societies, we will use some concrete examples of illegal drugs and finally discuss possible ways of limiting distribution of drugs or banning it on the basis of the ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s National Drug Control Strategy.Historically, it is possible to talk about appearance of illegal drug trade around the beginning of the 19th century. Ã¢â¬Å"China retaliated by enforcing the ban on imports of opium that led to the First Opium War (1839Ã¢â¬â1842) between Great Britain and Qing dynasty ChinaÃ¢â¬ (Berridge, 1981, p. 5). The highest authorities in China struggled against free sales of opium, whereas United Kingdom pushed China to let the merchants from China bring opium without any bans. However the volumes of opium trade continued to grow, because smoking opium turned into a habit among usual people. No wonder that the number of opium addicts grew immensely in the 19th century. The Second Opium War took place in 1856, the result of the two wars was that Ã¢â¬Å"th e British Crown, via the treaties of Nanking and Tianjin, took large sums of money from the Chinese government through this illegal trade, which were referred to as reparationsÃ¢â¬ (Berridge, 1981, p. 10).In the year 1868, the government of the UK took the decision to restrict sale of opium in the Pharmacy Act. In 1914 Harrison Act followed in the United States. Thus, it is clear, that even taking into consideration the fact, that opium sale brought good profits, sooner or later, governments had to restrict and take under control illegal drugs, in order not to worsen the situation with addicted people.Further, it is necessary to study the effects of the illegal drug trade upon usual people, as well as societies in generally, in detail. This is evident, that those countries, where drugs transit and distribution was widely developed, had to face the problems with drug addicted individuals.Most researches confirm the fact that illegal drug trade is closely related to crimesÃ¢â¬â¢ rate, namely such violent crimes, as murders. In this case we are unfortunately talking not only about developing, but about developed countries as well. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"In the late 1990s in the United States the Federal Bureau of Investigation estimated that 5% of murders were drug-relatedÃ¢â¬ (Berridge, 1981, p 3).The UK governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s surveys also underlined, that because of high cost of the illegal drugs and strong addiction, people are likely to commit serious crimes, including robberies, burglaries, murders and so on. Ã¢â¬Å"The cost of crime committed to support illegal cocaine and heroin habits amounts to Ã £16 billion a year in the UKÃ¢â¬ (Epstein, 1989, p. 13). The fact, that drugs were illegal, unfortunately could not restrict the actual sale and distribution, on the contrary this field of criminal activity was able to bring such high profits and the system was so well-built, that drugs became integrated into the American culture. Ã¢â¬Å"This high price is caused by a combination of factors that include the potential legal ramifications that exist for suppliers of illicit drugs and their high demand. (Limited supply can be caused by a range of factors) (Epstein, 1989, p.14).There appeared certain layers of society, where the high cost could not be an obstacle and drugs were used as a type of recreational activity. Irrespective of constant attempts to seize control over this problem by the authorities, it is still remaining actual for the USA as well as other countries all over the world. The 1940s brought prohibition of opiates, the 1960s Ã¢â¬â of marijuana and the 1970s Ã¢â¬â of heroin, however cocaine and other drugs continued to arrive to the U.S. through the Mexican border. Ã¢â¬Å"An estimated $10 billion of the Mexican drug cartelÃ¢â¬â¢s profits come from the United States, not only supplying the Mexican drug cartels with the profit necessary for survival, but also furthering AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ economic dependence on drug s.Ã¢â¬ (Epstein, 1989, p 16). The results were that first of all the number of drug-addicted people constantly grew and secondly, illegal drugsÃ¢â¬â¢ trade proved to be a business of very high profits and in fact a lot of businessmen invested exactly into this industry.Demographic was also in a way under influence of illegal drugs. Starting from the 1960s a lot of immigrants arrived to America and the diversity of public was evident. As several decades pasted, more and more criminal records, related to murders and other criminal acts on the basis of drug addiction, were created. Certainly the situation was different in different cities, however generally it really caused a great concern. Ã¢â¬Å"An example of this could be seen in Miami, a city with a host of ethnic enclaves. Between 1985 and 1995, the homicide rate in Miami was one of the highest in the nation and rated four times the national homicide averageÃ¢â¬ (Epstein, 1989, p. 22). The decades between 1960s and 198 0s also revealed the effects of drug trade upon the baby boomer generation. The demand for marijuana and other drugs was getting higher and higher during this period, resulting in its turn in increase of criminal cases, including suicide, murders, substance abuse. Thus, the insufficient control and restriction of illegal drugs had really serious impact upon individuals as well as societies in general.Political impact, which illegal drug trade had, could not be underestimated as well. The above-mentioned generation of the baby boomers was used to confront laws on various issues, including illegal drugs. The government was taking specific steps in order to restrict drug trafficking and trade, but with poor results. Marijuana was imported from the Latin America, whereas cocaine was received from Mexico and Colombia. Ã¢â¬Å"Due to the influence of this development on the U.S. economy, the Reagan Administration began certifying countries for their attempts at controlling drug trafficking Ã¢â¬ (Syal, 2009, p. 10). During the 1980s America pushed more for restriction of drug transit. The result was that more drugs arrived from Mexico: in the beginning of the 1990s Ã¢â¬â these were around 50 % of cocaine and by the middle of the 1990s Ã¢â¬â the percentage increased up to 90 %. Some researches state that between the years 1996 and 2000 the total consumption of cocaine on the territory of the U.S. decreased by 11 %.The Merida Initiative was a state program, which was initiated in 2008, with the major aim to stop drug trafficking from Mexico. The financial assistance from America, along with possibility to buy the necessary equipment was supposed to produce their positive effect. Unfortunately, the drug trade continued. Thus it is evident, that illegal drug trade has its impact upon internal political situation in any country as well as upon international relations in general.Cannabis is one of the most popular drugs, the legalization of which till the moment rem ains a rather controversial issue. Most countries all over the world defined this drug as an illegal one. There are countries, as Canada for example, which made cannabis legal for recreational use, with restriction of its import and distribution. In the year 2014 Uruguay considered legalization of cultivation and sale of cannabis for adult individuals with recreational purposes. In the Netherlands possession and licensed sale of cannabis are not prohibited, however cultivation of the drug is against the law.Heroin is another wide-spread illegal drug, initially cultivated in the Golden Triangle Ã¢â¬â Southeast Asia. In addition, opiate was transported from Afghanistan and Mexico. Ã¢â¬Å"According to the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, the price of heroin is typically valued 8 to 10 times that of cocaine on American streets, making it a high-profit substance for smugglers and dealersÃ¢â¬ (Syal, 2009, p. 10). The price of heroin, which is up to 10 times higher than that of cocaine, guarantees dealers and distributors good profits. High costs also contribute to easier transportation, as small doses are easier to hide. One the other hand, penalties for smuggling and heroin sale are rather serious in most countries, including life sentence or even death sentences.Methamphetamine is also rather popular under such names as Ã¢â¬Å"iceÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"methÃ¢â¬ . It is often produced at some rolling meth labs, which makes it rather difficult to detect. This drug is very dangerous due to its injectable form, which might be the source of such infections as HIV or hepatitis C. Usually it is inhaled through some kind of tube.Temazepam, another example of wide-spread illegal drugs, is Ã¢â¬Å"a strong hypnotic benzodiazepine, is illicitly manufactured in clandestine laboratories to supply the increasingly high demand for the hypnotic drug internationally (Syal, 2009, p. 8). Eastern Europe is the place of concentration of such labs. In the United Kingdom t emazepam belongs to legal drugs and is very often abused. In Sweden it was banned after numerous deaths caused by the drug.Thus in this section we have briefly studied some examples of the widely Ã¢â¬âspread illegal drugs, countries of their origin and application, possible negative effects and risks of the most famous illegal drugs.It is evident, that the problems of drug abuse, drug distribution and drug trafficking need complex solutions from the authorities. A lot of politic leaders and government representatives contributed their efforts into solving of the illegal drugs problems. President Obama is not an exception, in May 2010 he released the National Drug Control Strategy. Ã¢â¬Å"The press release states that the report establishes five-year goals for reducing drug use and its consequences through a balanced policy of prevention, treatment, enforcement, and international cooperation (Syal, 2009, p. 13). This Strategy suggests five-year goals aiming at reduction of drug ab use, namely:Ã¢â¬Å" Reduce the rate of youth drug use by 15 percent; Decrease drug use among young adults by 10 percent; Reduce the number of chronic drug users by 15 percent; Reduce the incidence of drug-induced deaths by 15 percent; and Reduce the prevalence of drugged driving by 10 percentÃ¢â¬ (Syal, 2009, p. 13).The three main challenges, described in this strategy include prevention of drug use, of driving under drug impact and prescription drug abuse. A separate place in the strategy is devoted to the problem of recovery of the people, who already became addicted and need urgent and concrete help. Addiction is not the final sentence, there are many case, where the situation might be returned under control with the help of special community addiction centers, development of new medications and so on.Overall, in this paper we have studied the notion of drug trafficking, its historical development and various approaches, applied in different countries towards this problem; we have pointed out some concrete spheres of illegal drug abuse influences, including political, social spheres; we have listed the most popular and wide-spread drugs, their major qualities, places of cultivation and ways of transportation and distribution. All this information is vitally important for understanding the necessity of better international along with internal control of illegal drugs and their trafficking, as well as possible means and strategies, which would positively contribute to restriction and control of drug trafficking for the sake of future healthy generations.
Monday, March 2, 2020
7 Types of Hyphenation That May Seem Wrong But Arent 7 Types of Hyphenation That May Seem Wrong But ArenÃ¢â¬â¢t 7 Types of Hyphenation That May Seem Wrong But ArenÃ¢â¬â¢t By Mark Nichol You know, of course, that a phrasal adjective, or compound modifier two or more words that combine to modify a noun are usually hyphenated to signal that link (only before the noun, however, and not if, as with Ã¢â¬Å"income taxÃ¢â¬ and many other permanent compounds, the open compound is in the dictionary). Even though the relationship often seems obvious, this is language law. Phrasal adjectives, however, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the only grammatical category in which hyphens are required even though they donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem necessary. Here are seven others: 1. Job Titles Some job titles, such as secretary-treasurer, are hyphenated to signal the combined roles. Others, such as secretary-general (the title of the head of the United Nations), retain this form as a holdover from a time when hyphenation of compound nouns was rampant, though technically, general is an adjective modifying secretary (as in the example of president-elect, below). However, this usage is an anomaly: similar terms like Ã¢â¬Å"attorney generalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"major generalÃ¢â¬ are open. Note that the adjective+noun combination Ã¢â¬Å"vice presidentÃ¢â¬ is open, but some other such compounds are hyphenated (vice-consul) or closed (viceroy). 2. Compound Nouns A handful of noun compounds stubbornly resist the usual usage evolution of open, hyphenated, and closed (or sometimes open to closed without the hyphenation middleman): The ones I can think of are by-product, life-form, light-year, and mind-set. Many people treat these artificially preserved throwbacks incorrectly the first and last compounds are often erroneously closed, and the hyphen is frequently omitted and a letter space inserted in the second and third ones and why shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t they? Omitting hyphens and treating these words as open or closed compounds doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t violate any scientific laws. However, until dictionaries respond to the attainment of a tipping point where most people are writing such terms incorrectly, these words should be hyphenated. (Light-year may someday be closed, but because the first element of life-form ends with a vowel, it will likely remain hyphenated. On that note, the disinclination to close this type of open compounds affects other terms, such as shape-shifter.) 3. Compound Verbs When you use two words together to refer to a single action, such as referring to air-conditioning a house, jump-starting a car, or mass-producing a product, a seemingly extraneous hyphen is required. (The same is true regardless of the form of the verb: air-condition and air-conditioned but Ã¢â¬Å"air conditioning.Ã¢â¬ ) 4. Fractions Hyphens in compound numbers such as twenty-one seem natural, but hyphenation of fractions (one-third) is counterintuitive. How many thirds? One. One is an adjective that modifies the noun third, so why hyphenate them unless theyÃ¢â¬â¢re linking to modify a noun (Ã¢â¬Å"one-third fullÃ¢â¬ )? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t make the rules; I just follow them. 5. Homographs Sometimes, prefixes youÃ¢â¬â¢d expect to be closed up to the root word are hyphenated, because closing them up would cause confusion with identical words with distinct meanings. Examples include resign/re-sign, resent/re-sent, and recreation/re-creation. (A rare case of a similar pair with a prefix other than re- is unionized/un-ionized.) 6. Prefixes Generally, permanent compounds beginning with the prefixes alls include all-around, ex-governor, and self-control. (Selfish and selfless, as well as the unfortunate unselfconscious, are exceptions with self-.) Some words beginning with co- (co-chair) and pro- (pro-choice) just look wrong closed up and are anomalously hyphenated, as are words in which the last letter of the prefix and the first letter of the root word are the same: anti-intellectual, co-owner, ultra-aggressive. Words beginning with non- are almost always closed, but occasionally theyÃ¢â¬â¢re seen hyphenated and for good reason: Ã¢â¬Å"Nonlife-threatening injuryÃ¢â¬ is an awkward treatment. Insert a hyphen when the prefix precedes a hyphenated phrasal adjective. And why, if we refer to the early or late part of an era, such as a decade or a century (Ã¢â¬Å"early 1920s,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"late nineteenth centuryÃ¢â¬ ), no hyphen is used, but a reference to the middle of a period requires one, as in mid-1970s or mid-century? Consistency would call for referring to Ã¢â¬Å"the middle 1970sÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"the middle of the century,Ã¢â¬ but mid- has replaced this usage. 7. Suffixes Constructions such as president-elect may seem to be unnecessarily burdened with a hyphen, but theyÃ¢â¬â¢re equivalent to modified phrases such as daughter-in-law. (Note, though, that such constructions do not include a hyphen when the first element is an open compound, such as in Ã¢â¬Å"vice president elect.Ã¢â¬ ) However, Ã¢â¬Å"editor in chiefÃ¢â¬ shed its connective tissue long go without difficulty (though some people still incorrectly hyphenate the phrase), so similar constructions may follow suit. For now, though, go with the flow. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:How to Structure A Story: The Eight-Point Arc3 Cases of Complicated Hyphenation7 Other Types of Pronouns
Friday, February 14, 2020
Case study - Essay Example The following study will analyze and deduce the feasibility of the company and its requirement of $1 million. JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Enterprises for Fast Food is a premium brand in the market of fast foods. It has gained immense popularity in the downtown Chicago, even though it does not have many selling points or carts at present. The USP of JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s is to provide healthy, natural and fresh food at competitive prices. It has grown impressively from a single cart company to a more than a million dollar enterprise. The company is primarily targeting the office workers with competitively priced fast food, which are high in nutritional value and are fresh and hygienic. The company wants to As mentioned the company is looking at a micro but profitable market. But again, it is a risky proposition to depend on a single market, even though it is competitively priced and has gained popularity. The present market may be the Ã¢â¬Å"starÃ¢â¬ for the company, but it still requires Ã¢â¬Å"cash cowsÃ¢â¬ to boost its revenue and operating profit. JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Enterprises should look beyond its present market and should implement plans to venture into new markets with innovative distribution system. The company can foray into restaurants and take away outlets to have a large bas of customers. And with its popularity will definitely reap returns in the long run. The current ratio is a very popular ratio and measures the ability of the firm to manage current liabilities. The higher the current ration the higher the short-term solvency. The current ratio of the firm is not high and hence it is looking for the loan for expansion. This ratio measures how efficiently assets are employed. This ratio is also akin to the output-capital ratio used in financial analysis. At the current rate we can assume that there is a proper utilization of assets and this may also help
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Windshield Survey Reflection - Essay Example From a study on the way of life in the state, the cost of living would be rated approximately at 85. The home worth, therefore, would stand at a higher level on a scale of comparisons. In terms of the incomes by the residents, only 10% earn below the poverty line. From a random survey conducted on the members of the village, the rates of unemployment stood at an outstanding 10%. Majority of the population comprises of males, 60% while the females are 57%. From the population numbers, at least 80% of each group are said to have acquired education, even though, up to high school. A good number in the population had ventured into higher institutions of learning for further studies. The household sizes range from 3 to 5 individuals. From this Windshield survey, points of discussion that may affect the health of this community include the likelihood of high obesity rates, diabetes, cholera and accidents in the town. The number of fast food restaurants in the town stand at over 1000, justifying to the possibility of high obesity and diabetes cases, constant complaints from the area residents on contaminated water from their taps and finally lifestyles that can afford the youth vehicles to drive-some are too reckless-thus a possibility of numerous accidents in the town. This survey will look at obesity and overweight as a health indicator. Over the years, obesity has posed a great challenge to the human race and requires constant treatment. Other illnesses come about with obesity such as high blood pressure, heart failure, stroke amongst others. In this case study, this disease may not be attributed to genetic inheritance but the lifestyle of people in the area. One nursing role that may be applied in this case is advocating for a complete lifestyle change in the lives of Kasaka individuals. The nurse may advice the patients to change their dietary habits or increase the amount of hours they dedicate to physical activities. As a result, they may be in a
Friday, January 24, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Throughout the many ages that the world has partaken, several cultures have been contrived among the almost seemingly abundant human race. Due to this extravagant collage amongst the world as a whole, many different views of the world have been created. Things such as race, religion, ethnicity, language, and personality as well are all things that contribute to the division of individual philosophy and belief. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If there is a place here on earth that signifies, or emphasizes, the collage of culture, then a college would have to be it. People of several various dissimilarities will eventually have to communicate with one or another on a day to day basis for educational matters. These students have lived completely different cultural, economic, and academic lives as well as having physical dissimilarities. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Though growth of the state of mind may be a result of time spent in college amongst the culture of the world, the way a person has lived their life may also be a contributing factor in individual philosophy as well. There are many people in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society that have significant setbacks amongst their lives that cause them to stop and think about what life is really about. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A potential classmate that I believe I could learn a significant amount from either within or outside a formal classroom would definitely have to be someone of moral Islamic background. I believe that it would be an exquisite adventure to extend my philosophy with that of an Islam. As you can see, IÃ¢â¬â¢m not too worried about the problems associated with terrorism or Al-Qaeda, so therefore I can easily blend with someone of that nature. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã President George Bush made a decision to imbuke war on Iraq with only the best intentions of ending terrorism among the United States of America, not with the anger and lust for revenge that the majority of Americans seemed to react with. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Back on subject, both Baptist and Islam have their similarities as well as their differences. I would mostly like to learn about what an Iraqi ethnicity must venture through in their life rather than their extravagant religion.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial The controlled and randomized double blind trials refer to a situation in which a medicine investigator is not familiar with the nature of a drug. The term may also mean that a scientist does not realize that a drug is being tested maybe for certain diseases. Such medicines may be under surveillance, and they are only administered in a small prescribed amount in case of any side-effects. For a typical scientific research, the desires, expectations and beliefs can subconsciously influence, often, how people perceive things.In clinical research and preliminary psychology, these values are broadly recognized, thus explaining the rationale on why studies from subjects are regularly carried out under both blind and double blind situations. There is irresistible empirical support, which reveals that the expectation and attitude of experimenters can actually have a great impact on the result of experiments (Schulz & Grimes, 2002). In a situation invo lving single-blind experiments, an examiner is not able to distinguish between different samples of treatment.However, when human beings are concerned, such as in experimental psychology and medicine, double-blind events can be used to watch against the anticipation of both investigators and their subjects. For instance, in a double-blind clinical trial, tablets of drugs may be administered to patients. Neither patients nor researchers are conscious of such experiments, and the principal placebo effects typically take place during trials. At this stage, both physicians and patients consider a powerful new treatment is being tested.The static tablets are liable to work like the cure being considered, and can even provoke its distinctive consequences. Similarly, experimenter expectation effects are recognized in experimental psychology, and also turn up in researches on animal activities (Schulz & Grimes, 2002). In a captivating historical description, Schulz and Grimes (2002) have re vealed that blind evaluation first commenced towards the end of the 18th century as an instrument for fraud discovery mounted by influential typical scientists and doctors to dispute the alleged fantasies or charlatanism of exceptional drug.Some of the initial researches were made to assess mesmerism, and were strictly performed with blindfolds. The application of blind evaluation had been implemented by the 19th century by homeopaths, and by early 14th century, was regulated by psychical investigators and psychologists. However, in the 1930s, the capacity of blind methods merged with no-cure control group in medical tests was broadly acknowledged by a majority of health researchers, and just subsequent to World War II did blind tests in unsystematic controlled assessment became a typical and normative procedure.In medication and psychology, blind testing began as prevention against the unconventional, but its universal significance has been renowned for orthodox study; it has been internalized. While examiners in unorthodox medical and their incredulous columnists have been conscious of the likely impacts of anticipation and credence for over two hundred years, and conventional health explorers and psychologists for decades, this knowledge ha spread extensively throughout the scientific society.The beliefs and prospects in other experimenters in other branches of science seem to be ignored. There appears to be an implicit supposition that scientists in conventional grounds of study are resistant to the broad code that values, needs and prospects can control, frequently subconsciously, how we view and deduce things (Schulz & Grimes, 2002). This published report in the scientific literature evaluates how often blind measures were used in diverse branches of science.University science sectors were requested to explain whether obscure methodologies were trained or experimented upon. The outcome discloses that blind methodologies are seldom if ever accomplished or trained in any of the three sciences. The use of blind measures in various branches of science presents a gauge of the significance researchers in that area join to experimenter impacts.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Many people in the world believe in something some people believe in god some believes god does not exist at all. Many different religions exist in world My religion is Muslim. I believe in god and Muhammed because that is what my religion teaches. However, I cannot really say that I am practicing my religion truly. My religion requires me to pray for five times a day and I have never done that. In fact, I do not even know how to do that. I am not proud of saying that but this is what I am. I am who I am because of my parent, because I have never saw them praying for five times a day for god and they did not teach me that. Just like me now, my parents say they are Muslims because we were born to be Muslims. I did not see my parents practicing the religion but I saw my grandparents on my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s side practicing religion. I think being Muslim requires the most work among all those religions because there are many things you have to do daily for the religion. For example, you ha ve to pray for five times a day and each takes about twenty minutes. The first one starts very early in the morning so you have to wake up very early even on the weekends. And before you start praying each time you have to clean yourself which is called wudu, ritual cleansing, and it takes some time too. Imagine doing that five times a day. Who has that much time? My grandparents have it and mostly you can see the older people practicing their religious more than younger Muslim population. I know myShow MoreRelatedDoes Islam Equate To Terrorism? Are Islamic Dominated Regions1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthought-provoking and rather exasperating questions are consciously and subconsciously asked by society. Though populated, the Islamic religion is somewhat foreign to most developed and western countries and has fewer people that identifies with the monotheistic group in these regions. 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